Monday, 19 March 2018
Hempedu Bumi (Andrographis paniculata)
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Andrographis panniculata is an annual herb with sharp quadrangular branches and leaves with a characecteristic bitter taste. The herb grows up to one meter high, bears small(2cm) whitish paniculate solitary flowers. The seeds are in pods which turn yellow-brown upon maturity. The local ethnic use is mainly for treating diabetes and hypertension.

The major constituent of A. paniculata is andrographolide. A study reported that oral administration of A. paniculata extract was able to reduce the serum glucose level of diabetic rats, comparable to the standard anti-diabetic drug metformin1. Another study demonstrated that the extracts of A. paniculata increase the absorption of carbohydrates by activating the brush border membrane bound hydrolases (e.g. lactase, maltase and sucrase) in the small intestine2. Other studies have shown that the herbal extract of A. paniculata have notable effects on lowering arterial blood pressure in rats3 and lowering of systolic blood pressure by reducing circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme in the plasma4.


  1. Zhang CY, Tan BKH. Anti-diabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozoin-diabetic rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2000;21(12):1157-1164.
  2. Choudary BR, Poddar MK. Andrographolide and kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) extract: effect on intestinal brush-border membrane-bound hydrolases. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1985;7:617-21.
  3. Zhang CY, Tan BK. Mechanisms of cardiovascular activity of Andrographis paniculata in the anaesthetized rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1997;56:97-101
  4. Zhang CY, Tan BK. Hypotensive activity of aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1996;23:675-8.

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